Tablighi Jamaat History Tareekh Islam in India
HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY OF EVOLUTION OF TABLIGHI JAMAAT can be divided into 5 Phases.
Period after 1944
Tablighi Jamaat is not a jamaat/group/Sect Rather it is a movement to revive Faith that saw a gradual evolution starting from 1920-27 in Mewat area of Indian State of Hariyana.
Naming of Tablighi Jamaat.
No name was put. Maulan Ilyas said I never thought of putting any name. People started calling it Tablighi Jmaat and this name became popular.
Role of Maulana Ilyas.
Actually the ground work of Reformation movement at Mewat was done by Maulana Muhammad Rahimullah but Maulana Ilyas carried it an organised manner. Almost all the elite Ulema of that time supported/praised Maulan Ilyas. Those who actively supported were most notably Maulana Abul hasan Ali Nadvi ,Maulana Manzur Nomani, Qari Tiyyab sb Rahimullah, Maulana Hussain Ahmad Madni and chief Mufti of India Mufti Kifayatullah.
TO KNOW THE DETAIL HISTORY OF SCHOLARS PARTICIPATING IN ITS EVOLUTION CLICK HERE.
AIM and Objective and Principle of Programme
This name TABLEEGH and those who are working in it as TABLIGHI JAMAAT is creating many confusion for many people. It cause many misconceptions. From the word TABLEEGH people think that it is a work of Preaching (Nassehat o Waaz) and TABLIGHI JAMAAT is a tem or Party of these Preachers.
Actually here the name TABLEEGHI JAMAAT means
“Here TABLEEGHI JAMAAT means a system of developing a deeni and Dawat Environment in with a person will be with certain Usools will do the Aamal of Dawat Taleem o Taallum (teaching and learning) Ibadat and Khidmat (Service) .
With this environment it is expected to have an increase in 1. attachment to Islam, 2.increase in Emaan,(Belive in Allah and Rasool command and words), 3. reformation of Action 4.seeking of knowledge and 5.Islah e Nafs and the 6.development of Jazba of sacrifice for Islam.
Four component are there in programme
1. Dawat o Tabligh
2.Taleem o Taallum (learning and teaching)
3.Tazkiyya (spritual Reformation)
HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY FROM 1920-1944 OF EVOLUTION OF TABLIGHI JAMAAT
SUMMARY OF Maulana Ilyas Idea of reformist Movement
Moulana Ilyas Saheb (Rahimahullah) observed that people were too engrossed in their worldly activities and had forgotten the objective for which they had been sent to this world. He realized that they had to free some time from their worldly engagements, to sit and ponder about Allah Ta’ala and their purpose for being sent to this world. Therefore, he started calling people to the masjid, and reminded them about Allah Ta’ala and His greatness. Initially people rebuked him, they discouraged him and used to say that they had no time for all of this; but as time went by, they realized the truth behind it and the need for it, and started joining him in calling others towards Allah Ta’ala. Thereafter, when more people started joining this work, a few guidelines had to be set, to make sure that the work was done in a proper manner. Different time periods of 3 days, 40 days, etc. were set, so that people knew for how long they had to be away, and could make the necessary arrangements for that period.
THE IMMEDIATE FACTOR FOR start of Tablighi Jamaat
1. Around 1910 Malkana tribe (near Agra,uttar pardesh,india) who were muslim started turning to nonbeliever.
2. Condition of the mewat tribe (At delhi-haryana border in ALWAR and Gurgaon district, india) was nearly same and were on the verge of becoming MURTAD and leaving Islam. According to gazette of Alwar and gurgaon” MEW tribe are very loose and careless muslim. They share most of the customs of other religion.There way is to celebrate religious function of both community and not to do any religious duty of any religion.They never go for Haj,but celebrate HOLI and Diwali.”
(Ref:Gazetter of Alwar 1878,gazette of district Gurgao 1910) For detail refer book Life and mission of maulana ilyas by Maulana abul hasan ali nadwi (ali miyan) page 73-79.
3. The family of Maulana Ilyas was having religious connection with the people of mewat since his father and elder brother Maulana Muhammad .
4. Maulana Ilyas was very serious and in pain from the religious condition of Mew tribe.
5. He adopted different ways for reform/taleem of MEW people but situation was not under control.
The evolution of SYSTEM ADOPTED BY TJ
6. The initial Idea of GUSHT (MEETING MUSLIM BROTHER FOR THE SAKE OF DEEN AT THEIR DOORSTEP and home and doing one to one talk with hikmah and love and passion by MAKING A GROUP OF 3 TO 10 PEOPLE) WAS GIVEN by PEOPLE OF FIROZPUR NAMAK town of MEWAT.They were doing it in informal way and reported this to Maulan Ilyas. Maulana Ilyas liked this method for calling people who are not TALIB at all.
7. Then it evolved to the doing gusht in nearby villages making jamaat.There dawat was about KALMA and Namaz,but it was not in organized or formal way but continued for few years.
First Jamaat from Firozpur Namak to work outsidein 1927
8. In 1927-28 Maulana Ilyas called the people of FIROZPUR NAMAK to devout some time for dawat e deen in other area of MEWAT by making jamaat (group).
9. Initially 6 people became ready for going nearly 10 days (three elderly namely hafiz Muhammad Bin Nor Baksh, Nambardar Mehrab Khan,Choudhary Namaz Khan,and three children of 12-13 years.)
Work gained momentum after 1933
10. Work remained at slow pace till 1933,In the winter of 1933 nearly 250 people became ready to offer some time and came to DELHI JAMA MASJID. Maulana Hussain Ahmad Madni (Rahmatullah Alaihi)gave the departure advice to jamaat and it was sent to PANIPAT,KARNAL (HARYANA),SAHARANPUR &KANDHLA (UTTAR PARDESH).
Expansion of the work
With the passage of time People realized the importance of Effort of deen to strenthen our Iman and Amaal.They realized there duty as the ummat of last prophet to convey this maasage to others also.So people started joining them in large number and started sacrificing for the cause of Islam.
Era from 1933 to 1939
Maulana continued with his work, After return from his second Haj he came with Istaqamat and Sharah sadr(Allah opened his heart to continue with the work). But till 1939 it remained largely in the area around Mewat, Delhi and few districts of western U.P. Largely Mewatis played an active participation although some of the prominent ulemas and shyukh supported it most notably Maulana Hussain Ahmad Madni,(R.A) and Abdur Raheem sb Raipuri (R.A) largely due to the pious personality of Maulana Ilyas but by and large it remain unattended from Circles of ulemas and scholar.
Attention of Ulemas and Islamic Scholars to the work around 1939
In Dec, 1939, three big personalities of India Maulana Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi(R.A), Maulana Manzoor Nomani(R.A) and Abdul Wahid Sb M.A.(R.A),planned to observe the religious work going on by different people/organization and to make a decision about themselves to join.
(They visited Saharanpur, Raipur and in Raipur Abdurraheem Sb Raipuri advised them to visit Maulana Ilyas (R.A.) at NIZAMUDDIN,Delhi and to see the ongoing work of Dawah.
They were aware with the name of maulaana Ilyas and had recently read an article about his Dawah Movement in Mgazine Tarjumanul Quran of SHAABAN 1358 Hijri written by Maulana Abul Ala Maudoodi (R.A)(the Renowed writer and founder of Jamaat e Islami) ,after visiting Maulana Ilyas at Nizamuddin and visiting the areas of mewat. That article was in praise of Tabligh work,The title of this article was “EK DEENI TAHRREK (A religious movement). So with advice of Raipuri Rahmatullah Alaihi their plan to visit Nizamuddin became final.
(Ref.Autobiography of Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi “KARWANE ZINDAGI” vol 4)
Spread and Acceptance of work by Ulemas
Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi R.A started taking formal and active participation along with Maulana Manzoor Nomani R.A and it helped much for spreading of work among Ulema and Madarsas.
With there participation the work got an interface at a time when other Ulemas were not much attentive to the work. Maulana Ilyas has always acknowledged it and always praised Maulana Ali Miyan.
Ali Miyan visited Peshawar and other parts of (Pakistan) undivided India besides actively doing the effort in India.Apart from this other Ulemas were also took part.
An important Mashwara was called to discuss the ways of participation of students of Madarsa which was attended by Qari Tayyab Sb (R.A) Rector of Darul Uloom Deoband, Mufi Kifayatullah Sb Mufti e Azam Hind,Maulana Mohammad Shafi Sb of Madarsa Abdurrab Delhi,Hafiz Abdullateef Sb of Muzahirul uloom Saharanpur,Maulana Aizaz Ali ,teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband,and Maulana zakariya and Maulana Abdul Qadir Sb Raipuri (RAHMATULLAH ALAIHIM) (Ref :Biography of Ali Miyan:Sawane Mufakkirul Islam page no 197-205,Life and mission of maulana ilyas page no 159)
The effect of the work became all inclusive for all section of society
RIGHT FROM THE BEGINNING VIEW OF MAULANA ILYAS WAS TO INCLUDE EACH SECTION OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE EFFORT OF DEEN AND TO UTILISE THEIR CAPABLITIES FOR THE PROPAGATION OD DEEN. He became quiet successful in its endevour and work spreaded in colleges and university. Students and teachers of Jamia Millia Islamia and Aligarh Muslim University came closer to the work. Dr Zkair Hussain (Former president of india was professor at Jamia Millia Islamia that time) was close to Maulana Ilyas and used to come Nizamuddin regularlyWork also spreaded among business clas and other sections of the society. .(Ref Biography of Abul Hasan Ali NadviPage no 204,Life and mission of maulana Ilyas page no.219 )
Maulana Ilyas death
MaulanA Ilyas died on 13th July 1944. During last days of his illness he named a list of 6 persons to lead the effort after his death. Maulana Muhammad Yusuf son of Maulana Ilyas was one of these 6 people. And later on he was selected to lead the movement.
Maulana Yusuf himself was a great scholar of Islam. His famous book in Arabic HAYATUS SAHABA is like a masterpiece on the practical aspect of life of Hazrat Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam and Sahaba Kara.It is a encyclopedic book very popular in the Arab World.Its English and urdu translations are similarly popular.
Transnational expansion of tabligh work after 1944
Maulana Yusuf was himself a great scholar of Hadith and gave the work of dawat the much needed scholary support. Apart from HAYATUS SAHABAH he also wrote Muntakhab Ahadith collection of Ahadith related to six qualities of Dawat and Tabligh. During his period work spreaded from the Indian subcontinent to other parts of the world.A Jamaat went from India to Arab which included Maulana Ali Miyan who was a prolific writer in Arabic and was popular in Arab World and it rooted the work in Arab Countries. With passage of time it became a transnational movement to strengthen Imaan and Amaal e Saliha. Maulana Yusuf died in 1964 at Lahore.
Muqami Kaam (effort of deen at home)
Tabligh work has two facets
1.Going in the path of Allah for some days.
2.Doing the Amaal and effort while being at home.
After Maulana Yusuf, Maulana Inamul Hasan took the responsibility to lead the effort. Maulana Inaamul Hasan Made a formal Tarteeb of Muqami Kam (effort of deen while being at home) and it hlped the brothers to strengthen the qualities and gain achieved in the path of Allah. And established strong connection between Daee and the his neihbour and surrounding.
Maulana Ilyas view was of Taking care of whole world
As Hazrat Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam was last prophet and this ummat has responsibility for whole world. So the system of Tabligh has been designed to cater all these. To start from oneself to whole world. Muhammad sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam simultaneously did effort on all front
eg Even if his family member and people of makkah not accepted he went to Taif, even whole Arab not accepted he reached to Roman and Persian empire and did not waited to be accepted by all people of his area to start work in other areas. So in tabligh work a system was made to cater from onself, to family, to muhallah,to nearby town,to country,to whole world.
E.g FOR INDIVIDUAL :In faradi Amaal, tasbeeh,tilawat e quran Taleem ,gusht and effort in the pth of allah for person himself, FOR FAMILY: Daily Taleem and Muzakra with quran Halqa, . FOR MUHALLA: Daily Taleem in mosque, Daily meeting with brothers, Daily Mashura, Weekly Gusht, FOR NEIGHBORING LOCALITY:Second Gusht,and 3 day in a month,FOR COUNTRY:40 days FOR WORLD RESPONSIBILITY:4 Months. Women will also go in the path of Allah obviously under the ambit of Shariah Ruling and with many restriction always with her Husband/Sharai Mahram.
Regarding Dawah among Non Believers
Maulana Ilyas was in principle very serious about the important work of Muslim of calling nonbelievers towards Allah and the way of Salvation.
When Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar was going to London for Round Table Conference Maulana Ilyas wrote him a letter drawing his attention to give the massage of Allah to british officials including the british prime ministr churchil.That mean he was very much aware of the importance of this aspect.
But he was of the view that qualities are needed in muslims ummah to convey the massage of Islam to all mankind in a effective way. To put the house of muslim in order was of priority importance for him. And it has prove from Quran and Hadith that taking care of muslims is an important aspect of deen.
In Verse ABASA WATAWALLAH………….it has been stressed in the chaptor that those who are already in the fold should also get importance while about others it is not certain that they will come into the fold.
It is necessary to adopt qualities for effective Dawah
It is also necessary,that one should adorn oneself with the qualities of a true Believer. He should apply the commands of Deen upon himself.
This includes being punctual upon Salaah with Jama’ah(congregation). One should refrain from all sins and transgression. One should refrain from disobedience, adultery, drinking, stealing, transacting in interest, lying, backbiting, deceiving, not paying people their dues – even if they be non-Muslims.
He should deal with compassion and kindness. Likewise he should fulfil his promises. These are the qualities of a Believer. When one will adorn oneself with these qualities, he will be loved by the people. Hence this will attract them to Islam and they will eventually accept it.
EXAMPLES OF SPREAD OF ISLAM BY STEADFASTNESS ON DEEN
Many of the countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, etc. were not conquered by Mujahideen. Islam spread in the these countries by means of traders who were steadfast on Deen. Hence the people loved them and enquired from them about their religion. Thus they entered into the fold of Islam.
Therefore it is necessary for the Daa’ie to adopt these qualities. We thank Allah Ta’ala that he granted the Tabligh Jama’ah the tawfeeq to adopt this noble method. They approach people with love and kindness. Hence we find that, due to their efforts, great benefit has been achieved throughout the world. We pray Allah Ta’ala to grant them the ability to continue with this good work and may He make all their actions solely for Himself. May they remain steadfast on this noble Da’wah in which there is great benefit for Islam and the Believers. Insha Allah.
JAZAKALLAH O KHAIR
(Historical fact refrenced from Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi (rahmatullah) book LIFE AND MISSION OF MAULANA ILYAS and Miyan Ji MUSA book Tabligh ka muqami Kam and Tabligh tahreek ki Ibtida in Urdu and hindi respectively. Miyan Ji Musa was among the first few people from mewat and was present throughout the evolution of tabligh work..)