speech acts speech acts speech acts

Taken From Prof.Wagiman Adisutrino’s Book“Semantics: An Introduction To The Basic Concepts”
There are two kinds of SPEECH ACTS, DECLARATIONS and PERFORMATIVES (Cook, 1990:35-37). In declaration, the action is the same as the saying, the utterance. The action is expressed by the verb of the utterance.declaration are limited in number. Some examples are:
1. I promise to follow your order,
2. I arrest you/you’re under arrest,
3. I declare the meeting open.
4. Saya terima nikahnya fulanah binti fulan dengan mahar seperangkat alat sholat…
5. I sentence you to ten-year imprisonment
6. I state that he is not guilty
7. I pronounce that they may be husband and wife
Declarations are mostly uttered in rituals, such as religious rites and all forms of ceremony. In performatives, the saying is also the doing, but the verbs of actions are not expressed in the saying. Some utterances have three layers of interpretation.
The 1st layer is called the LOCUTION. It is the literal meaning of the utterance, that is, the meaning of the utterance which is carried by the words in the in the utterance and their arrangement or their structure of words.
The 2nd level is called the ILLOCUTION. Illocution is the act of the utterance. It is the act which is performed by saying the utterance. It is the underlying force of the utterance or the interpretation of the utterance by the hearer.
The 3rd level is the PERLOCUTION. Perlocution is the consequent effect of the utterance on the hearer, or the overall aim of the utterance. Some examples are:


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